Cookies are crisp if they are very low in moisture.The following factors contribute to
1. Low proportion of liquid in the mix. Most crisp cookies are made from a stiff
2. High sugar and fat content.
3. Evaporation of moisture during baking due to high temperatures and/or long
4. Small size or thin shape,so the cookies dry quickly during baking.
5. Proper storage.Crisp cookies can become soft if they absorb moisture.
Softness is the opposite of crispness, so it has the opposite causes, as follows:
1. High proportion of liquid in mix.
2. Low sugar and fat.
3. Honey, molasses, or corn syrup included in formulas.These sugars are hygroscopic,
which means they readily absorb moisture from the air or from their surroundings.
4. Under baking.
5. Large size or thick shape.The cookies retain moisture.
6. Proper storage. Soft cookies can become stale and dry if not tightly covered or
Moisture is necessary for chewiness,but other factors are also required.In other words,
all chewy cookies are soft, but not all soft cookies are chewy.
1. High sugar and liquid content,but low fat content.
2. High proportion of eggs.
3. Strong flour,or gluten developed during mixing.
Spread is desirable in some cookies,while others must hold their shape.Several factors
contribute to spread or lack of spread.
1. Sugar.
High sugar content increases spread. Coarse granulated sugar increases spread,
whereas fine sugar or confectioners’ sugar reduces spread.
2. Leavening.
High baking soda or baking ammonia content encourages spread. So does long
creaming,which incorporates air.
3. Temperature.
Low oven temperature increases spread. High temperature decreases spread because
the cookie sets up before it has a chance to spread too much.
4. Liquid.
A slack batter—that is, one with a high liquid content—spreads more than a stiff
5. Flour.
Strong flour or activation of gluten decreases spread.
6. Pan grease.
Cookies spread more if baked on a heavily greased pan.

Cookie-mixing methods are much like cake-mixing methods.The major difference is
that less liquid is usually incorporated,so mixing is somewhat easier.
Less liquid means that gluten is less developed by the mixing. Also, a smooth, uniform
mix is easier to obtain.
There are three basic cookie mixing methods:
1. One-stage
2. Creaming
3. Sponge
These methods are subject to many variations
due to differences in formulas.The general procedures
are as follows. Be sure, however, to follow
the exact instructions when a formula indicates a
variation in the procedure.

The one-stage method is the counterpart of the
blending or two-stage cake-mixing method, discussed
in the previous chapter. Cake batters have
more liquid, so it must be added in two or more
stages in order to blend uniformly. Low-moisture
cookies,on the other hand,can be mixed all in one

The creaming method for cookies is nearly identical
to the creaming method for cakes. Because
cookies require less liquid, it is not necessary to
add the liquid alternately with the flour. It can be
added all at once.

The sponge method for cookies is essentially the
same as the egg-foam methods for cakes.The procedure
varies considerably, depending on the ingredients.
Batches should be kept small because
the batter is delicate.

Procedure for One-Stage Method
1. Scale ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.
2. Place all ingredients in mixer. With the paddle attachment, mix at low speed until
uniformly blended. Scrape down the sides of the bowl as necessary.
Procedure for Creaming Method
1. Scale ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.
2. Place the fat, sugar, salt, and spices in the mixing bowl. With the paddle attachment,
cream these ingredients at low speed.
For light cookies, cream until the mix is light and fluffy, incorporating more air for
For a dense, chewy cookie, cream only slightly.
3. Add the eggs and liquid, if any, and blend in at low speed.
4. Sift in the flour and leavening. Mix until just combined.
Procedure for Sponge Method
1. Scale all ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature, or
warm the eggs slightly for greater volume, as for sponge cakes.
2. Following the procedure given in the formula used, whip the eggs (whole, yolks,
or whites) and the sugar to the proper stage: soft peaks for whites, thick and light
for whole eggs or yolks.
3. Fold in the remaining ingredients as specified in the recipe. Be careful not to
over mix or to deflate the eggs.


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